Author Topic: Ingestion of dark chocolate & SCUBA. Chocolate makes about everything better.+  (Read 1999 times)

DocV

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"Diving Hyperb Med. 2015 Mar;45(1):4-9.
The effect of pre-dive ingestion of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a scuba dive.

Theunissen S1, Balestra C2, Boutros A3, De Bels D4, Guerrero F5, Germonpré P6.
Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the study was to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after scuba diving.
METHODS:

Forty-two male scuba divers were divided into two groups: a control (n = 21) and a chocolate group (n = 21). They performed a 33-metres deep scuba-air dive for 20 minutes in a diving pool (Nemo 33, Brussels). Water temperature was 33⁰C. The chocolate group ingested 30 g of dark chocolate (86% cocoa) 90 minutes before the dive. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography and nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrites (ONOO-) levels were measured before and after the scuba dive in both groups.
RESULTS:

A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dive (91 ± 7% (mean ± 95% confidence interval) of pre-dive values; P < 0.001) while it was increased in the chocolate group (105 ± 5% of pre-dive values; P < 0.001). No difference in digital photoplethysmography was observed between before and after the dives. No variation of circulating NO level was observed in the control group whereas an increase was shown in the chocolate group (154 ± 73% of pre-dive values; P = 0.04). A significant reduction in ONOO- was observed in the control group (84 ± 12% of pre-dive values; P = 0.003) whereas no variation was shown after the dive with chocolate intake (100 ± 28% of pre-dive values; ns).
CONCLUSIONS:

Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 90 minutes before scuba diving prevented post-dive endothelial dysfunction, as the antioxidants contained in dark chocolate probably scavenge free radicals."

DocV

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1st chocolate; now vit C. Reduce oxidative stress brought on by scuba.+
« Reply #1 on: August 03, 2015, 23:19:56 UTC »
"Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Jun 17:ajpregu.00155.2015. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00155.2015. [Epub ahead of print]

Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

Yang M1, Barak OF2, Dujic Z2, Madden D2, Bhopale VM3, Bhullar J4, Thom SR5.

Abstract

Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 weeks later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47 minute dive to 18 meters of sea water while breathing air (~222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2), or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 minutes (~ 40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 minutes after the 18 meter dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and total number of microparticles as well as sub-groups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine increased approximately 2-fold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by trans-thoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation."

 

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